​Bende, Z. (2012). Female intercollegiate athletes' travel behavior, travel needs and motivations on sporting aimed tours. All Theses. Paper 1312.

Biagi, B. & DeTotto, C. (2010). Crime as tourism externality (working paper). Centro Ricerche Economichen Nord Sud (CRENoS), Cagliari, Italy.

Boyle, P. & Haggerty, K.D. (2009). Spectacular security: Mega-events and the security complex. Political Sociology, 3. 257-274.

Button, M. (2003). Private security and the policing of quasi-public space. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 31, 227-237.

Chiang, Leong Choon (2000). Strategies for safety and security in tourism: A conceptual framework for the Singapore hotel industry. The Journal of Tourism Studies, 11(2), 44-52.

Coaffee, J., Fussey, P., & Moore, C. (2011). Laminated security for London 2012: Enhancing security infrastructures to defend mega sporting events. Urban Studies, 348, 3311-3327.x

Connors, E. (2007). Planning and managing security for major special events: Guidelines for law enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS).

Crotts, J.C. (2003). Theoretical perspectives on tourist victimization. Journal of Tourism Studies, 14, 92-98.

Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), (2008). Guide to safety at sports grounds. 5th ed. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Department of Homeland Security (DHS), (2011). Risk management fundamentals (DHS Office of Risk Management and Analysis, in coordination with the Office of Policy). Retrieved November 25, 2015 from

Freifelder, L. R. (1983). Collegiate sports risk management." Journal of Risk and Insurance, 50, 703-718.

Frosdick, S. (2009). Policing, safety and security in public assembly facilities. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 12(1). 2010, 81-89. DOI: 10.1350/ijps.2010.12.1.161.

Hall, S., Byon, K., & Baker, T. (2013). Managing the threat of terrorism in sport: Importance and performance analysis (IPA) of safety and security preparedness for NCAA sport facilities. International Journal of Sport Management, 14(4), 1-23.

Hall, S. (2013). Development of a national risk management training program for college sport event security command groups. Journal of Emergency Management, 11, 313-320.

Hall, S., Marciani, L., Cooper, W. E., & Rolan, R. (2008). Introducing a risk assessment model for sport venues. Sports Management, U.S. Sports Academy. Retrieved from

Heggie, T. W. (2009). Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 7, 207-211.

Hilliard, T. W. & Baloglu, S., (2008). Safety and security as part of the hotel servicescape for meeting planners. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 9 (1), 15-34.

Hyman, M.R., Sierra, J.J. (2007). Sports idolatry: A problem? (Working paper). Retrieved from

Island, J. R. (2016). Your plan is your parachute: A simplified guide to business continuity and crisis management. Manuscript in press.

Kary, J.M., & Lavalee, M. (2007). Travel medicine and the international athlete. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 26, 489-503.

LaVetter, D., & Kim, H.D. (2010). Transportation practices in community college athletics. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 34, 449-461.

Meloy, J. R. (2003). When stalkers become violent: The threat to public figures and private lives. Psychiatric Annals, 33, 658-665.

Overseas Security Advisory Council, U.S. Department of State ([OSAC], 1994). Security Awareness Overseas: An Overview. (Department of State Publication 10217, Bureau of Diplomatic Security.) Released July 1991, Revised November 1994.

Palmer, C. (2011). Violence against women and sport: A literature review. London: End Violence against Women.

Plecas, D., Dow, M., Diplock, J., & Martin, J. (2010). The planning and execution of security for the 2010 Winter Olympic Games: 38 best practices and lessons learned. Abbotsford, Canada: Centre for Criminal Justice Research, University of the Frazer Valley.

Police Executive Research Forum (PERF). (2011). Managing Major Events: Best Practices from the Field. Critical Issues in Policing Series. Washington, D.C.

Schwellnus, M. P., Derman, W. E., Jordaan, E., Page, T., Lambert, M. I., Readhead, C, Roberts, C., Kohler, R., Collins, R., Kara, S., Morris, M. I., Strauss, O., Webb, S. (2012).  Elite athletes travelling to international destinations >5 time zone differences from their home country have a 2−3-fold increased risk of illness. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46: 816-821, doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091395.

Tarlow, P. (2002). Event Risk Management and Safety. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Next: Recommended Reading